This conference assessed the evolving role of deterrence, assurances, and reductions in addressing the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21st century. Discussions debated the future criteria for successful deterrence of real and potential adversaries, as well as assurance to allies. It assessed the concept of global nuclear order as well as whether, and how, deterrence can coexist alongside a process of nuclear reductions and in a strategic environment with a variety of nuclear actors. The possible consequences of the evolving political events in the Middle East for regional security, the trends in nuclear latency, and the sources of deterrent strategy were also assessed. The implications of these events for the future shape and viability of deterrence and assurance strategies for bordering regions were considered as well.